Nanoliposomes have been tested to deliver short-chain ceramides both in vitro and in vivo, but their use is limited by the relatively high concentration of nanoliposome ceramide (∼1−4 μg/mL in vitro22,24 and ∼10−50 mg/kg in vivo20,25,26) required to achieve antitumor effects, leading to possible offtarget toxicity. However, as demonstrated by our previous studies the levels of ceramide required to kill cancer cells can be substantially reduced by combination therapy with paclitaxel, which interacts with ceramide in a supra-additive
manner to promote apoptosis.
As carbon nanotubes allow the encapsulation of multiple drugs, they may facilitate the delivery of ceramide at a smaller dosage, resulting in less toxic effects than current delivery methods.
John Marshall et al, Trojan horse nanotubes on command intracellular drug delivery, J Nanoletters: